GLOSSARY

Chapter 2: About CGMS

Ae EMU area  [ha]
Estimated planted area [ha]
A2 NUTS-2 area  [ha]
b0 regression constant [ton.ha-1]
b regression constant [ton.ha-1.year-1]
b2 regression constant [-]
ce percentage of the EMU area suitable for cultivation of crop x [-]
c2 c2 is percentage of the NUTS-2 area suitable for cultivation of crop x [-]
e EMU [-]
k number of NUTS-2 subregions per NUTS-1 region [-]
number of EMUs in a NUTS-2 subregionof the EMU area suitable for wheat cultivation [-]
Production volume [ton]
ST Simulation result in year T  [ton.ha-1]
Estimated yield in year T  [ton.ha-1]
YT2 simulated average NUTS-2 yield in year T  [ton.ha-1]
YT,e,i simulated EMU yield in year T [ton.ha-1]

Chapter 4: WEATHER

a Albedo or reflection coefficient of regarded surface [-]
b Solar elevation [degrees]
g Psychrometric constant (at elevation z) [hPa C-1]
go Psychrometric constant at sea level [hPa C-1]
D Slope of the saturation vapour pressure curve [hPa C-1]
DT Temperature difference [C]
d Solar declination [degrees]
e Ratio molecule weight water vapor / dry air [-]
l Latitude [degrees]
L Latent heat of vaporization [MJ kg-1]
s Stefan Boltzmann constant [MJm-2 K-4d-1]
sinb Integral of solar height [s]
sinbm Modified integral of effective solar height [s]
Aa,Ba Emperical constants of the ngstrm equation [-]
As Emperical constant of extented Hargreaves equation [C-0.5]
Bs Emperical constant of extented Hargreaves equation [-]
Cs Emperical constant of extented Hargreaves equation [J m-2 d-1]
Ah Emperical constant of Hargreaves equation [C-0.5]
Bh Emperical constant of Hargreaves equation [J m-2 d-1]
BU Emperical coefficient in the wind function [s m-1]
c Coefficient on regression of transmission on solar angle [-]
Cp Specific heat of moist air [kJ kg-1 C-1]
CC Mean total cloud cover during daytime [octas]
cosLD Amplitude of sine of solar height = cosdcosl [-]
D Day length [h]
Dp Diffuse irradiation perpendicular to the direction of light [J m-2 s-1]
ea Saturated vapour pressure [hPa]
EA Evaporative demand of the atmosphere [mm d-1]
ed Actual vapour pressure [hPa]
ET0 Evapo(transpi)ration [mm d-1]
factor Empirical constant in the EA equation [-]
f(u) Wind related function [ms-1]
n Bright sunshine hours per day [hr]
p correction constant [degrees]
P Atmospheric pressure (at elevation z) [hPa]
Po Atmospheric pressure at sea level [hPa]
Rav Average radiation [J m-2 d-1]
Rna Net absorbed radiation in equivalent evaporation [mm d-1]
Rnl Net outgoing long wave-radiation [J m-2 d-1]
Rs Incoming solar radiation [J m-2 d-1]
Sc Average solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere [J m-2 s-1]
Sc,d Solar constant at the top of the atmosphere for a certain day [J m-2s-1]
Rdf,d Daily diffuse radiation [J m-2 d-1
Rg,d Daily global radiation J m-2 d-1]
Ro,d Daily extra-terrestrial solar radiation [J m-2 s-1
sinLD Seasonal offset of sine of solar height = sindsinl [-]
T Average daily temperature [C]
Tatm Atmospheric transmission [-]
td Day number since the 1st of January [-]
th Hour of the day [hr]
Tmax Maximum temperature [C]
Tmin Minimum temperature [C]
u(2) Mean windspeed at 2 m height [m s-1]
W Temperature related weighting factor [-]
z Elevation [m]

Chapter 5: CROP

b Angle of the sun above horizon [degrees]
d Solar declination [degrees]
e Initial light use efficiency [kg ha-1 leaf h-1]/[J m-2 leaf s-1]
k Extinction coefficient for photosynthetic active radiation flux [-]
kbl Extinction coefficient for the direct radiation flux [-]
kdf Extinction coefficient for the diffuse radiation flux [-]
kdr,bl Extinction coefficient for the direct component of direct light [-]
kdr,t Extinction coefficient for the total direct radiation flux [-]
l Latitude [degrees]
r Reflection coefficient of a green leaf canopy [-]
z Scattering coefficient fraction of single leaves for visible radiation [-]
s Solar declination [degrees]
STi Temperature sum required to complete stage i [C d]
sinbm Modified integral of effective solar height [s]
DQt Rate variable at time step t [unit d-1]
Dt Time step [d]
DW Dry matter growth rate total crop [kg ha-1 d-1]
DWd Death rate of leaves [kg ha-1 d-1]
DW1d Potential death rate of leaves due to water stress [kg ha-1d-1]
DW2d Potential death rate of leaves due to high LAI [kg ha-1d-1]
DWi Dry matter growth rate organ i [kg ha-1 d-1]
DWni Net dry matter growth rate organ i [kg ha-1 d-1]
DWnlv Net dry matter growth of leaves [kg ha-1 d-1]
DWrt Dry matter growth rate roots [kg ha-1 d-1]
DWsh Dry matter growth rate shoots [kg ha-1 d-1]
i Death rate organ i [kg kg-1 d-1]
max,lv Maximum relative death rate of leaves due to water stress [kg kg-1d-1]
A Gross assimilation rate [kg ha-1 d-1
A1d Gross daily CO2 assimilation rate, corrected for low min. temperature [kg ha-1 d-1]
Ad Total daily gross assimilation rate [kg ha-1 d-1]
Ac Total inst. gross assimilation rate for the whole canopy [kg ha-1 h-1]
Ac,l Total inst. gross canopy assimilation rate per unit leaf area [kg ha-1 h-1]
AT,L Total inst. gross assimilation rate at a relative depth L [kg ha-1 h-1]
AL Instantaneous gross assimilation rate at relative depth L [kg ha-1 h-1]
Am Instantaneous gross assimilation rate at light saturation [kg ha-1 h-1]
Ash Instantaneous gross assimilation rate, shaded leaves [kg ha-1 h-1]
Asl Instantaneous gross assimilation rate, sunlit leaves [kg ha-1 h-1]
Ce Conversion efficiency factor of assimilates, total crop [kg kg-1]
Ce,i Conversion efficiency factor of the assimilates of a specified organ [kg kg-1]
Cf Cluster factor [-]
cm,i Maintenance coefficient of organ i [kg kg-1 d-1]
D Day length [h]
Dc Critical day length for development (lower threshold) [h]
Do Optimum day length for development (upper threshold) [h]
Dr,t Development rate coefficient at time step t [d-1]
Ds,t Development stage at time step [-]
DTs Temperature dependent correction factor [C]
fred Development rate reduction factor due to day length [-]
fsl Fraction sunlit leaf area [-]
frai Reduction factor for leaf age increase [-]
GAIi Green area index of organ i [ha ha-1]
L Relative depth of horizon in the canopy [-]
Lc Critical day length for development (lower threshold) [h]
Ld Actual day length [h]
Lo Optimum day length for development (upper threshold) [h]
LAI Leaf area index [ha ha-1]
LAIt Leaf area index at time step t [ha ha-1]
LAIc Critical leaf area index [ha ha-1]
LAIL Cumulative leaf area index at relative depth L in the canopy (from top downwards) [ha ha-1]
LExp,t Growth rate of the leaf area index at time step t during exponential growth stage [ha ha-1 d-1]
LSc,t Growth rate of the leaf area index at time step t during the source limited growth stage [ha ha-1 d-1]
p Gaussian integration points [-]
Page,t Physiologic age at time step t [d]
PAR Photosynthetically active radiation [J m-2 d-1]
PARo Photosynthetically active radiation flux at top of the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
PARo,L Net photosynthetic active radiation at relative depth L in the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
PARo,dr Direct part of the photosynthetically active radiation flux at top of the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
PARo,df Diffuse part of the photosynthetically active radiation flux at top of the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
PARa Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux [J m-2 s-1]
PARa,L Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux at relative depth L [J m-2 s-1]
PARa,df Absorbed amount of the diffuse radiation flux [J m-2 s-1]
PARa,dr,dr Absorbed amount of the direct component of direct radiation flux [J m-2 s-1]
PARa,dr,sl Absorbed amount of the direct radiation flux by leaves perpendicular to the direct beam [J m-2 s-1]
PARa,dr,t Absorbed amount of the total direct radiation flux [J m-2 s-1]
PARa,sh Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux by shaded leaves [J m-2 s-1]
PARa,sl Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux by sunlit leaves [J m-2 s-1]
PARdf,L Net diffuse component of total PAR at relative depth L in the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
PARdr,L Net direct component of direct PAR at relative depth L in the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
PARdr,t,L Net total PAR at relative depth L in the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
PARL Net photosynthetic active radiation flux at depth L in the canopy [J m-2 s-1]
pci Partitioning factor of specified organ [kg kg-1]
R1d Gross daily CH2O assimilation rate, not corrected for water stress [kg ha-1 d-1]
Rd Gross daily CH2O assimilation rate [kg ha-1 d-1]
Rg Growth respiration rate [kg ha-1 d-1]
Rm Maintenance respiration rate [kg ha-1 d-1]
Rm,r Maintenance respiration rate at a reference temp. of 25 C [kg ha-1 d-1]
Rm,T Maintenance respiration rate at temperature T [kg ha-1 d-1]
RDcrop Crop-dependent maximum rooting depth [cm]
RDi Initial rooting depth [cm]
RDmax Maximum rooting depth [cm]
RDsoil Soil-dependent maximum rooting depth [cm]
RDt Rooting depth at time step t [cm]
RL Maximum relative increase of leaf area index [C-1 d-1]
RRmax Maximum daily increase in rooting depth [cm]
Qt State variable at time step t [unit]
Q10 Relative increase of the respiration rate per 10 C [-]
Sexp,t Specific leaf area at time step t during the exponential growth stage [ha kg-1]
Sla Specific leaf area [ha kg-1]
SSi Specific green area of organ i [ha kg-1]
T Daily (average) temperature [C]
Ta Actual transpiration [cm d-1]
Tatm Atmospheric transmission [-]
Tb Base temperature below which phenological development stops [C]
Tb,age Lower treshold temperature for physiologic ageing [C]
Te Effective daily temperature [C]
Tday Average daytime temperature [C]
th Hour of the day (solartime) [h]
Tlow Seven day running average of minimum temperture [C]
Tmax Maximum daily temperature [C]
Tmax,e Maximum temperature, beyond which the phenological development rate does not increase [C]
Tmin Minimum daily temperature [C]
Tp Potential transpiration [cm d-1]
Tr Refererence temperature for definition of maintenance coefficients [C]
W Total dry matter weight [kg ha-1]
Wd Weight of leaves that have died during current time step [kg ha-1]
Wi Dry matter weight organ i [kg ha-1]
Wi,t Dry matter weight organ i at time step t [kg ha-1]

lv

leaves
rt roots
st stems
so storage organs

Chapter 6: SOIL WATER BALANCE

ap First regression constant for derivation of the soil water depletion factor [-]
pp Second regression constant for derivation of the soil water depletion factor [-]
Dq Rate of change in moisture content of root zone [cm3 cm-3 d-1]
qair Critical soil moisture content for aeration [cm3 cm-3]
qair,p Air content at selected matric head p=-1,0,1 [cm3 cm-3]
qair,yi Air content at selected matric head [cm3 cm-3]
qair,t Air content above ground water table [cm3 cm-3]
qc Critical air content [cm3 cm-3]
qfc Soil moisture content at field capacity (pF = 2.0) [cm3 cm-3]
qmax Soil porosity (maximum soil moisture content) [cm3 cm-3]
qt Actual soil moisture content [cm3 cm-3]
qwp Soil moisture content at wilting point [cm3 cm-3]
qws Critical soil moisture content [cm3 cm-3]
qyi Actual soil moisture content as a function of matric head [cm3 cm-3]
kdf Extinction coefficient for diffuse radiation [-]
kgb Extinction coefficient for global radiation [-]
Dt Time step [d]
Dy Height of interval matric head [cm]
yo Lower boundary interval matric head [cm]
y1 Upper boundary interval matric head [cm]
yi Matric head [cm]
y(A) Matric head as a function of the amount of air [cm]
DWrz Rate of change of the amount of soil moisture in the root zone [cm d-1]
DWlz Rate of change of the amount of soil moisture in the lower zone [cm d-1]
DW Rate of change in the amount of moisture in the root zone [cm d-1]
DZ Change in groundwater level per time step [cm d-1]
Anew New air amount between root zone and ground water level [cm]
Aair(h) Amount of air in the soil as a function of height above the groundwater [cm]
Afc Amount of air at field capacity [cm]
CRmax Maximum flow rate calculated at equilibrium [cm d-1]
CR Rate of capillary rise [cm d-1]
CI Reduction factor for rain not infiltrating during time step [-]
D Height difference between root zone and the groundwater table [cm]
DD Drain depth [cm]
DR Drainage rate [cm d-1]
DRmax Maximum drainage rate (is equal to the drainage capacity) [cm d-1]
Dslr Days since last rain [d]
DS Rate of change of surface storage [cm d-1]
Ea Effective evaporation rate [cm d-1]
Es Evaporation rate from a shaded soil surface [cm d-1]
Es,max Maximum evaporation rate from a shaded soil surface [cm d-1]
Ew Evaporation rate from a shaded water surface [cm d-1]
Ew,max Maximum evaporation from a shaded water surface [cm d-1]
E0 Potential soil evaporation [cm d-1]
E0s Potential evaporation rate for a soil surface [cm d-1]
E0w Potential evaporation rate for a water surface [cm d-1]
ET0 Potential evapotranspiration rate [cm d-1]
FI Fraction of rain not infiltrating during time step t [-]
FL Flow rate (=capillary rise, =percolation) [cm d-1]
Ie Effective daily irrigation [cm d-1]
IN Infiltration rate [cm d-1]
INmax Maximum infiltration rate [cm d-1]
INp Preliminary infiltration rate [cm d-1
K Hydraulic conductivity [cm d-1]
K0 Hydraulic conductivity at saturation [cm d-1]
K(pF) 10log of hydraulic conductivity as a function of pF [-]
LAI Leaf area index [ha ha-1]
Loss Percolation rate from the lower zone to the subsoil [cm d-1]
Nocg Number of crop group to be specified [-]
Nod Number of succesive days with stress due to oxygen shortage [-]
p Soil water depletion fraction or fraction of easily available soil water [cm3 cm-3]
p Three points for Gaussian integration [-]
P Precipitation intensity [cm d-1]
pF pF value [-]
Perc Percolation rate from root zone to lower zone [cm d-1]
Ros Reduction factor for transpiration due to oxygen shortage (water excess) [-]
Ros,max Maximum reduction factor for transpiration due to oxygen shortage [-]
Ros Reduction factor for transpiration due to oxygen shortage [-]
Rws Reduction factor for transpiration due to water shortage [-]
RD Actual rooting depth [cm]
RDmax Maximum rooting depth [cm]
SRt Surface runoff at time step t [cm]
SSt Surface storage at time step t [cm]
SSmax Maximum surface storage [cm]
Tm Maximum crop transpiration rate [cm d-1]
Ta Actual transpiration rate [cm d-1]
UP Uptake capacity of lower zone [cm d-1]
Wav Initial amount of soil moisture in excess of qwp [cm]
Wdd Amount of water above drains [cm]
Wlz Amount of soil moisture in the lower zone [cm]
Wlz,fc Equilibrium amount of soil moisture in the lower zone [cm]
Wrz Amount of soil moisturein the rooted zone [cm]
Wss,fc Equilibrium soil moisture amount below rooted zone [cm]
Wrz,fc Equilibrium soil moisture amount in rooted zone [cm]
Wdd,fc Equilibrium soil moisture amount above the drains up to the surface [cm]
Zt Depth of groundwater level at time step t [cm]
Zrd Distance between root zone and groundwater table [cm]

APPENDIX IV Establishing the sowing date

CRmax Maximum capillary rise [cm d-1]
EOs Potential evaporation rate from a bare soil surface [cm]
Es Evaporation rate from a bare soil [cm d-1]
Inp Amount of water infiltrating in the plow [cm]
P Precipitation intensity [cm d-1]
Sp1 First top soil seepage parameter [-]
Sp2 Second top soil seepage parameter [-]
Wexc,t Excess amount of water in the plow layer at time step t [cm]

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