GLOSSARY
Chapter 2: About CGMS
A_{e}  EMU area  [ha] 
Estimated planted area  [ha]  
A_{2}  NUTS2 area  [ha] 
b_{0}  regression constant  [ton.ha^{1}] 
b_{1 }  regression constant  [ton.ha^{1}.year^{1}] 
b_{2}  regression constant  [] 
c_{e}  percentage of the EMU area suitable for cultivation of crop x  [] 
c_{2}  c_{2} is percentage of the NUTS2 area suitable for cultivation of crop x  [] 
e  EMU  [] 
k  number of NUTS2 subregions per NUTS1 region  [] 
n  number of EMUs in a NUTS2 subregionof the EMU area suitable for wheat cultivation  [] 
Production volume  [ton]  
S_{T}  Simulation result in year T  [ton.ha^{1}] 
Estimated yield in year T  [ton.ha^{1}]  
Y_{T2}  simulated average NUTS2 yield in year T  [ton.ha^{1}] 
Y_{T,e,i}  simulated EMU yield in year T  [ton.ha^{1}] 
Chapter 4: WEATHER
a  Albedo or reflection coefficient of regarded surface  [] 
b  Solar elevation  [degrees] 
g  Psychrometric constant (at elevation z)  [hPa °C^{1}] 
g_{o}  Psychrometric constant at sea level  [hPa °C^{1}] 
D  Slope of the saturation vapour pressure curve  [hPa °C^{1}] 
DT  Temperature difference  [°C] 
d  Solar declination  [degrees] 
e  Ratio molecule weight water vapor / dry air  [] 
l  Latitude  [degrees] 
L  Latent heat of vaporization  [MJ kg^{1}] 
s  Stefan Boltzmann constant  [MJm^{2} K^{4}d^{1}] 
òsinb  Integral of solar height  [s] 
òsinb_{m}  Modified integral of effective solar height  [s] 
A_{a},B_{a}  Emperical constants of the Ångström equation  [] 
A_{s}  Emperical constant of extented Hargreaves equation  [°C^{0.5}] 
B_{s}  Emperical constant of extented Hargreaves equation  [] 
C_{s}  Emperical constant of extented Hargreaves equation  [J m^{2} d^{1}] 
A_{h}  Emperical constant of Hargreaves equation  [°C^{0.5}] 
B_{h}  Emperical constant of Hargreaves equation  [J m^{2} d^{1}] 
BU  Emperical coefficient in the wind function  [s m^{1}] 
c  Coefficient on regression of transmission on solar angle  [] 
C_{p}  Specific heat of moist air  [kJ kg^{1} °C^{1}] 
CC  Mean total cloud cover during daytime  [octas] 
cosLD  Amplitude of sine of solar height = cosdcosl  [] 
D  Day length  [h] 
D_{p}  Diffuse irradiation perpendicular to the direction of light  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
e_{a}  Saturated vapour pressure  [hPa] 
EA  Evaporative demand of the atmosphere  [mm d^{1}] 
e_{d}  Actual vapour pressure  [hPa] 
ET0  Evapo(transpi)ration  [mm d^{1}] 
factor  Empirical constant in the EA equation  [] 
f(u)  Wind related function  [ms^{1}] 
n  Bright sunshine hours per day  [hr] 
p  correction constant  [degrees] 
P  Atmospheric pressure (at elevation z)  [hPa] 
P_{o}  Atmospheric pressure at sea level  [hPa] 
R_{av}  Average radiation  [J m^{2} d^{1}] 
R_{na}  Net absorbed radiation in equivalent evaporation  [mm d^{1}] 
R_{nl}  Net outgoing long waveradiation  [J m^{2} d^{1}] 
R_{s}  Incoming solar radiation  [J m^{2} d^{1}] 
S_{c}  Average solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
S_{c,d}  Solar constant at the top of the atmosphere for a certain day  [J m^{2}s^{1}] 
R_{df,d}  Daily diffuse radiation  [J m^{2} d^{1} 
R_{g,d}  Daily global radiation  J m^{2} d^{1}] 
R_{o,d}  Daily extraterrestrial solar radiation  [J m^{2} s^{1} 
sinLD  Seasonal offset of sine of solar height = sindsinl  [] 
T  Average daily temperature  [°C] 
T_{atm}  Atmospheric transmission  [] 
t_{d}  Day number since the 1^{st} of January  [] 
t_{h}  Hour of the day  [hr] 
T_{max}  Maximum temperature  [°C] 
T_{min}  Minimum temperature  [°C] 
u(2)  Mean windspeed at 2 m height  [m s^{1}] 
W  Temperature related weighting factor  [] 
z  Elevation  [m] 
Chapter 5: CROP
b  Angle of the sun above horizon  [degrees] 
d  Solar declination  [degrees] 
e  Initial light use efficiency  [kg ha^{1} leaf h^{1}]/[J m^{2} leaf s^{1}] 
k  Extinction coefficient for photosynthetic active radiation flux  [] 
k_{bl}  Extinction coefficient for the direct radiation flux  [] 
k_{df}  Extinction coefficient for the diffuse radiation flux  [] 
k_{dr,bl}  Extinction coefficient for the direct component of direct light  [] 
k_{dr,t}  Extinction coefficient for the total direct radiation flux  [] 
l  Latitude  [degrees] 
r  Reflection coefficient of a green leaf canopy  [] 
z  Scattering coefficient fraction of single leaves for visible radiation  [] 
s  Solar declination  [degrees] 
ST_{i}  Temperature sum required to complete stage i  [°C d] 
òsinb_{m}  Modified integral of effective solar height  [s] 
DQ_{t}  Rate variable at time step t  [unit d^{1}] 
Dt  Time step  [d] 
DW  Dry matter growth rate total crop  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
DW_{d}  Death rate of leaves  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
DW^{1}_{d}  Potential death rate of leaves due to water stress  [kg ha^{1}d^{1}] 
DW^{2}_{d}  Potential death rate of leaves due to high LAI  [kg ha^{1}d^{1}] 
DW_{i}  Dry matter growth rate organ i  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
DWn_{i}  Net dry matter growth rate organ i  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
DWn_{lv}  Net dry matter growth of leaves  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
DW_{rt}  Dry matter growth rate roots  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
DW_{sh}  Dry matter growth rate shoots  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
†_{i}  Death rate organ i  [kg kg^{1} d^{1}] 
†_{max,lv}  Maximum relative death rate of leaves due to water stress  [kg kg^{1}d^{1}] 
A  Gross assimilation rate  [kg ha^{1} d^{1} 
A^{1}_{d}  Gross daily CO_{2} assimilation rate, corrected for low min. temperature  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
A_{d}  Total daily gross assimilation rate  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
A_{c}  Total inst. gross assimilation rate for the whole canopy  [kg ha^{1} h^{1}] 
A_{c,l}  Total inst. gross canopy assimilation rate per unit leaf area  [kg ha^{1} h^{1}] 
A_{T,L}  Total inst. gross assimilation rate at a relative depth L  [kg ha^{1} h^{1}] 
A_{L}  Instantaneous gross assimilation rate at relative depth L  [kg ha^{1} h^{1}] 
A_{m}  Instantaneous gross assimilation rate at light saturation  [kg ha^{1} h^{1}] 
A_{sh}  Instantaneous gross assimilation rate, shaded leaves  [kg ha^{1} h^{1}] 
A_{sl}  Instantaneous gross assimilation rate, sunlit leaves  [kg ha^{1} h^{1}] 
C_{e}  Conversion efficiency factor of assimilates, total crop  [kg kg^{1}] 
C_{e,i}  Conversion efficiency factor of the assimilates of a specified organ  [kg kg^{1}] 
C_{f}  Cluster factor  [] 
c_{m,i}  Maintenance coefficient of organ i  [kg kg^{1} d^{1}] 
D  Day length  [h] 
D_{c}  Critical day length for development (lower threshold)  [h] 
D_{o}  Optimum day length for development (upper threshold)  [h] 
D_{r,t}  Development rate coefficient at time step t  [d^{1}] 
D_{s,t}  Development stage at time step  [] 
DT_{s}  Temperature dependent correction factor  [°C] 
f_{red}  Development rate reduction factor due to day length  [] 
f_{sl}  Fraction sunlit leaf area  [] 
f_{rai}  Reduction factor for leaf age increase  [] 
GAI_{i}  Green area index of organ i  [ha ha^{1}] 
L  Relative depth of horizon in the canopy  [] 
L_{c}  Critical day length for development (lower threshold)  [h] 
L_{d}  Actual day length  [h] 
L_{o}  Optimum day length for development (upper threshold)  [h] 
LAI  Leaf area index  [ha ha^{1}] 
LAI_{t}  Leaf area index at time step t  [ha ha^{1}] 
LAI_{c}  Critical leaf area index  [ha ha^{1}] 
LAI_{L}  Cumulative leaf area index at relative depth L in the canopy (from top downwards)  [ha ha^{1}] 
L_{Exp,t}  Growth rate of the leaf area index at time step t during exponential growth stage  [ha ha^{1} d^{1}] 
L_{Sc,t}  Growth rate of the leaf area index at time step t during the source limited growth stage  [ha ha^{1} d^{1}] 
p  Gaussian integration points  [] 
P_{age,t}  Physiologic age at time step t  [d] 
PAR  Photosynthetically active radiation  [J m^{2} d^{1}] 
PAR_{o}  Photosynthetically active radiation flux at top of the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{o,L}  Net photosynthetic active radiation at relative depth L in the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{o,dr}  Direct part of the photosynthetically active radiation flux at top of the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{o,df}  Diffuse part of the photosynthetically active radiation flux at top of the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a}  Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a,L}  Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux at relative depth L  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a,df}  Absorbed amount of the diffuse radiation flux  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a,dr,dr}  Absorbed amount of the direct component of direct radiation flux  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a,dr,sl}  Absorbed amount of the direct radiation flux by leaves perpendicular to the direct beam  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a,dr,t}  Absorbed amount of the total direct radiation flux  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a,sh}  Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux by shaded leaves  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{a,sl}  Absorbed amount of the total radiation flux by sunlit leaves  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{df,L}  Net diffuse component of total PAR at relative depth L in the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{dr,L}  Net direct component of direct PAR at relative depth L in the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{dr,t,L}  Net total PAR at relative depth L in the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
PAR_{L}  Net photosynthetic active radiation flux at depth L in the canopy  [J m^{2} s^{1}] 
pc_{i}  Partitioning factor of specified organ  [kg kg^{1}] 
R^{1}_{d}  Gross daily CH_{2}O assimilation rate, not corrected for water stress  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
R_{d}  Gross daily CH_{2}O assimilation rate  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
R_{g}  Growth respiration rate  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
R_{m}  Maintenance respiration rate  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
R_{m,r}  Maintenance respiration rate at a reference temp. of 25 °C  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
R_{m,T}  Maintenance respiration rate at temperature T  [kg ha^{1} d^{1}] 
RD_{crop}  Cropdependent maximum rooting depth  [cm] 
RD_{i}  Initial rooting depth  [cm] 
RD_{max}  Maximum rooting depth  [cm] 
RD_{soil}  Soildependent maximum rooting depth  [cm] 
RD_{t}  Rooting depth at time step t  [cm] 
RL  Maximum relative increase of leaf area index  [°C^{1} d^{1}] 
RR_{max}  Maximum daily increase in rooting depth  [cm] 
Q_{t}  State variable at time step t  [unit] 
Q_{10}  Relative increase of the respiration rate per 10 °C  [] 
S_{exp,t}  Specific leaf area at time step t during the exponential growth stage  [ha kg^{1}] 
S_{la}  Specific leaf area  [ha kg^{1}] 
SS_{i}  Specific green area of organ i  [ha kg^{1}] 
T  Daily (average) temperature  [°C] 
T_{a}  Actual transpiration  [cm d^{1}] 
T_{atm}  Atmospheric transmission  [] 
T_{b}  Base temperature below which phenological development stops  [°C] 
T_{b,age}  Lower treshold temperature for physiologic ageing  [°C] 
T_{e}  Effective daily temperature  [°C] 
T_{day}  Average daytime temperature  [°C] 
t_{h}  Hour of the day (solartime)  [h] 
T_{low}  Seven day running average of minimum temperture  [°C] 
T_{max}  Maximum daily temperature  [°C] 
T_{max,e}  Maximum temperature, beyond which the phenological development rate does not increase  [°C] 
T_{min}  Minimum daily temperature  [°C] 
T_{p}  Potential transpiration  [cm d^{1}] 
T_{r}  Refererence temperature for definition of maintenance coefficients  [°C] 
W  Total dry matter weight  [kg ha^{1}] 
W_{d}  Weight of leaves that have died during current time step  [kg ha^{1}] 
W_{i}  Dry matter weight organ i  [kg ha^{1}] 
W_{i,t}  Dry matter weight organ i at time step t  [kg ha^{1}] 
lv  leaves 

rt  roots 

st  stems 

so  storage organs 

Chapter 6: SOIL WATER BALANCE
a_{p}  First regression constant for derivation of the soil water depletion factor  [] 
p_{p}  Second regression constant for derivation of the soil water depletion factor  [] 
Dq  Rate of change in moisture content of root zone  [cm^{3} cm^{3} d^{1}] 
q_{air}  Critical soil moisture content for aeration  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{air,p}  Air content at selected matric head p=1,0,1  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{air,yi}  Air content at selected matric head  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{air,t}  Air content above ground water table  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{c}  Critical air content  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{fc}  Soil moisture content at field capacity (pF = 2.0)  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{max}  Soil porosity (maximum soil moisture content)  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{t}  Actual soil moisture content  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{wp}  Soil moisture content at wilting point  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{ws}  Critical soil moisture content  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
q_{yi}  Actual soil moisture content as a function of matric head  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
k_{df}  Extinction coefficient for diffuse radiation  [] 
k_{gb}  Extinction coefficient for global radiation  [] 
Dt  Time step  [d] 
Dy  Height of interval matric head  [cm] 
y_{o}  Lower boundary interval matric head  [cm] 
y_{1}  Upper boundary interval matric head  [cm] 
y_{i}  Matric head  [cm] 
y(A)  Matric head as a function of the amount of air  [cm] 
DW_{rz}  Rate of change of the amount of soil moisture in the root zone  [cm d^{1}] 
DW_{lz}  Rate of change of the amount of soil moisture in the lower zone  [cm d^{1}] 
DW  Rate of change in the amount of moisture in the root zone  [cm d^{1}] 
DZ  Change in groundwater level per time step  [cm d^{1}] 
A_{new}  New air amount between root zone and ground water level  [cm] 
A_{air}(h)  Amount of air in the soil as a function of height above the groundwater  [cm] 
A_{fc}  Amount of air at field capacity  [cm] 
CR_{max}  Maximum flow rate calculated at equilibrium  [cm d^{1}] 
CR  Rate of capillary rise  [cm d^{1}] 
C_{I}  Reduction factor for rain not infiltrating during time step  [] 
D  Height difference between root zone and the groundwater table  [cm] 
DD  Drain depth  [cm] 
DR  Drainage rate  [cm d^{1}] 
DR_{max}  Maximum drainage rate (is equal to the drainage capacity)  [cm d^{1}] 
D_{slr}  Days since last rain  [d] 
DS  Rate of change of surface storage  [cm d^{1}] 
E_{a}  Effective evaporation rate  [cm d^{1}] 
E_{s}  Evaporation rate from a shaded soil surface  [cm d^{1}] 
E_{s,max}  Maximum evaporation rate from a shaded soil surface  [cm d^{1}] 
E_{w}  Evaporation rate from a shaded water surface  [cm d^{1}] 
E_{w,max}  Maximum evaporation from a shaded water surface  [cm d^{1}] 
E0  Potential soil evaporation  [cm d^{1}] 
E0_{s}  Potential evaporation rate for a soil surface  [cm d^{1}] 
E0_{w}  Potential evaporation rate for a water surface  [cm d^{1}] 
ET0  Potential evapotranspiration rate  [cm d^{1}] 
F_{I}  Fraction of rain not infiltrating during time step t  [] 
FL  Flow rate (=capillary rise, ¯=percolation)  [cm d^{1}] 
I_{e}  Effective daily irrigation  [cm d^{1}] 
IN  Infiltration rate  [cm d^{1}] 
IN_{max}  Maximum infiltration rate  [cm d^{1}] 
IN_{p}  Preliminary infiltration rate  [cm d^{1} 
K  Hydraulic conductivity  [cm d^{1}] 
K0  Hydraulic conductivity at saturation  [cm d^{1}] 
K(pF)^{ }  10log of hydraulic conductivity as a function of pF  [] 
LAI  Leaf area index  [ha ha^{1}] 
Loss  Percolation rate from the lower zone to the subsoil  [cm d^{1}] 
No_{cg}  Number of crop group to be specified  [] 
No_{d}  Number of succesive days with stress due to oxygen shortage  [] 
p  Soil water depletion fraction or fraction of easily available soil water  [cm^{3} cm^{3}] 
p  Three points for Gaussian integration  [] 
P  Precipitation intensity  [cm d^{1}] 
pF  pF value  [] 
Perc  Percolation rate from root zone to lower zone  [cm d^{1}] 
R_{os}  Reduction factor for transpiration due to oxygen shortage (water excess)  [] 
R_{os,max}  Maximum reduction factor for transpiration due to oxygen shortage  [] 
R_{os}  Reduction factor for transpiration due to oxygen shortage  [] 
R_{ws}  Reduction factor for transpiration due to water shortage  [] 
RD  Actual rooting depth  [cm] 
RD_{max}  Maximum rooting depth  [cm] 
SR_{t}  Surface runoff at time step t  [cm] 
SS_{t}  Surface storage at time step t  [cm] 
SS_{max}  Maximum surface storage  [cm] 
T_{m}  Maximum crop transpiration rate  [cm d^{1}] 
T_{a}  Actual transpiration rate  [cm d^{1}] 
UP  Uptake capacity of lower zone  [cm d^{1}] 
W_{av}  Initial amount of soil moisture in excess of q_{wp}  [cm] 
W_{dd}  Amount of water above drains  [cm] 
W_{lz}  Amount of soil moisture in the lower zone  [cm] 
W_{lz,fc}  Equilibrium amount of soil moisture in the lower zone  [cm] 
W_{rz}  Amount of soil moisturein the rooted zone  [cm] 
W_{ss,fc}  Equilibrium soil moisture amount below rooted zone  [cm] 
W_{rz,fc}  Equilibrium soil moisture amount in rooted zone  [cm] 
W_{dd,fc}  Equilibrium soil moisture amount above the drains up to the surface  [cm] 
Z_{t}  Depth of groundwater level at time step t  [cm] 
Z_{rd}  Distance between root zone and groundwater table  [cm] 
APPENDIX IV Establishing the sowing date
CR_{max}  Maximum capillary rise  [cm d^{1}] 
EO_{s}  Potential evaporation rate from a bare soil surface  [cm] 
E_{s}  Evaporation rate from a bare soil  [cm d^{1}] 
In_{p}  Amount of water infiltrating in the plow  [cm] 
P  Precipitation intensity  [cm d^{1}] 
Sp_{1}  First top soil seepage parameter  [] 
Sp_{2}  Second top soil seepage parameter  [] 
W_{exc,t}  Excess amount of water in the plow layer at time step t  [cm] 
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